“This study focuses on the “effect of corruption” in the Nigeria in the Nigeria public service which is aimed at studying the extent of damage which corruption has caused to the image of the public service in Nigeria and how it could be addressed. The Nigeria public service today has been discovered to be affected by corruption. This system has become so corrupt that it brought about non-chaplaincy and lack drastically attitude reluctance and profligacy, diversion of funds meant to be spent in the system into private purses and bank accounts, favoritism and nepotism etc. All these and many others going on in the system are characterized as corruption in the Nigerian public service. The research which was carried out, tries to find out the effect of corruption not just finding out alone. But to help proffer solution by suggesting means or panacea to salvaging the Nigeria public service from the corruption not just finding out alone. But to help proffer solution by suggesting means or panacea to salvaging the Nigeria public service from the corruption that has eaten deep into its root. How it could be nipped in the “Bud”, the researcher applied statistical analysis of collected data on questionnaire. Personal interview of staff and key officers. Extensive uses of percentage were applied to provide results. The result of research reveals that the question of doubt whether corruption exist in Nigeria public service should be erased because it does exist. No society has been found to be corrupt free. This social malaise has affected the performance of workers especially the public service. Thus, also have grossly reduced the speed of development as organizational goals remain unachieved because of ineffective and in efficient utilization of the available resources to meet the needs of the society. The public servants lack the spirit of patriotism and dedication to service this has led to the weakness of the system, bringing about unproductive with the mind set of “ Olu-Oyibo syndrome those who are opportune to serve should not see it as an avenue to lavish their own self fishiness but to see it as an opportun8ity of service to God and human kind.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
From time immemorial corruption has been in every society, it has become like a plaque which has eaten deep into the system of every society, through some are more pronounced in some society while some society try to cover their order from being exposed.
The Nigerian public service is discovered to be corrupt, infact, it is no longer new, it has become part of the service culture, the system has become so corrupt that it brought about non-chaplaincy and lackadaisical attitude, recalcitrance and profligacy diversion of funds meant for government work in to private purses and bank accounts, nepotism and favouritism etc all these are characterized as corruption going in the Nigeria public service.
The research system in work, the civil service system in Ebonyi State as a case study for this work “ Effect of Corruption in Nigeria Public Service”. This topic is to find out the effect of corruption and the danger it could cause for any society that does not find a way to curb this hydra healed monster called corruption. Corruption dents or destroys the image of a society. Corruption destroys the government of the day, it also destroys the hope of future generations.
This issue, if neglected would lead to dangerous consequences, that is why the research has choosen to find out the effect of corruption in the Nigeria public service using Ebonyi States civil service as a case study. Like they say that what concerns any part of the body will affect the part of the body will affect the whole, the way a spanntastes, is how the not of soap would taste. The research believe that as it is in Ebonyi State civil service so it is in every other system of government in Nigeria, that is why the researcher has choosen Ebonyi State civil service system.
This is a malady that has eaten deep into the fabrics of Nigeria body palaties. Corruption has defined conceivable daiquiris and permeated into all sectors of the nation’s economy’. It is rampant and prevalent in both high and law places in the country.
“It manifest in several forms, “ It features in employment and staff management. When initial employment and future promotion have to be bought; it features in award of contracts in the administrative of founds in investment decision; in the continuous payment of non-existing (Ghost) workers, in the appointment of unqualified and un-experienced staff in the institutionalization of accept the bearer syndrome.
(Okpata, 2004) Bemoaning the incident of corruption in Nigeria, (Odondri, 1995) proclaimed that “Corruption is endemic in our body politic.
Nowadays, almost every discourse centre on the high tendency of corruption in our public life. There is the very strong perception that our Nigeria corruption is but corruption is official.
In summary, Odondri had been institutionalized and made in the country. Policy designers and implementers alike, like typical Nigeria, accept money or money’s wrath before carrying out their statutory obligation they consciously misinterpret and thus, misdirect the policy objectives to suit their whatever shap or dimension corruption manifest, it is certainly anti- progressive in the course of implementation. Corruption lacks confident and negates the effective implementation of any nation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Corruption is a great enemy of development. According T Sen 1999, development can be understood as “a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy”. Nevertheless, corruption does not allow these freedoms to flourish. “Corruption in one way or the other infringes upon the fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals; it adversely affects all categories of rights”.
The researcher wants to state clearly here that this work is studying “Effect of corruption in Nigeria public service” a case study of Ebonyi State civil service, since the research earlier stated that whatever study is make in Ebonyi State civil service will represent the entire Nigerian public service system.
Generally, it is a well known fact that corruption which was supposed to be since-qua non to nothing in Nigerian civil service administration as regards to its effectiveness and efficiency of performance has succeeded and considered since colonial and post colonial era a successful measure of income increase in the civil service.
Infact, all activities in the civil service, have been monopolized by this cankerworm. Corruption is not far fetched in all human endeavorus including individual families, other non-government and governmental organizations, but that of the civil service is ware delicate because of the role it plays in the government and entire society.
The general performance of the civil servants in their various offices has been radically contaminated and as such has stopped the prestige and dignity so low and in a wide spectrum has, tarnished the image of the country Nigeria bath internationally and globally in her relation with other countries of the world.
The civil service which can best be described the life were of the nation have been subjected to service of reforms over the year “ Infact, it has required image of a sick –baby of the various government and the nation at large, its maladies internal range from gross effective and effectiveness to bribery and corruption”. Unfortunately, these manifest itself in the civil servants, government top officers, police offices, teachers in various institutions etc.
In Ebonyi State civil service corruption takes the shape of Embezzlement of public fund Committing fraud by some with political leaders Manining and assassination of superior officers to take over their positions Bureaucratic red-tapism, nepotism and favoritism Erosion of discipline, Insertion of cognitive inexperienced officers and indiscriminate promotions and transfers because they have people in high places.
The ghost worker “ syndrome”
Setting of government offices ablaze to cover up crimes committed on records.
Collecting bribe to render services which are meant to be free of charge.
Under declaration of age and tampering with employment files (records) so as not to retire when due.
The open and close reporting system in this case superiors don’t usually tell the truth in order to sage their lives or the other way round, they write down their subordinate because he or she does not know what is written about him or her. The reporter will favour who he or she like, but who ever they hate, they write down or off. All these are being done in the public /civil service in guest for power and wealth and greed and selfishness among the leaders and civil servants and as such the civil service finds it difficult to carry out its task effectively in the context. In any case, the research work will be concerned with how high level corruption in civil service contribute to the state of poorer performance, inefficiency and infectiveness.
As a result of these problem, to ensure maximum achievement of efficiency in the civil service in Ebonyi State government should realize the good measure that should be taken to wipe out corruption.
It is in recognition of these ugly frauds in the process of the research work that the following principle research questions arise:
What shape does corruption take in Ebonyi State Civil Service?
How does corruption affect the performance of civil servants?
How do they perceive corruption risk factors –the causes of corruption, areas of corruption practices etc?
Which risk factor (s) is (are) more critical in the view of public officials and civil servants?
What are the perspectives of public officials and civil servant regarding the phenomena of corruption and anti-corruption underway in the Ebonyi State? What are the reasons for the public not to act as whistleblower?
Is there a significant difference between public officials and civil servants in terms of their acts and behaviours with regard to corruption?
How could the anti-corruption drive be strengthened to instigate and eliminate corrupt practices?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is to explore the nature of public sector corruption in Ebonyi State and suggest possible ways of minimizing it. The specific objective of the study are:-
To promote discussion on the context of corruption and anti-corruption in Ebonyi State and call upon the attention of scholars to undertaken studies on this relatively new areas of research;
To assess the perception of public officials and civil servants on corruption and the activities of ICPC and EFCC;
To evaluate or weigh the corruption risk factors that are brought together as lessons from literature highlighting on factors responsible for optimizing and perpetuating corruption (Gorta 1998);
To analyze selected corruption risk factors in the workplaces within Ebonyi State Public sector; and
To indicate strategies for combating corruption in Ebonyi State.
The truth is that this problem is a global problem with certain destructive tendencies in the third world country like Nigeria. It is a dare –devil that stares humanity in the face.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Fighting corruption is not a one time campaign. It took England more than a century to bring corruption under control. Hong-Kong and Singapore, which are mostly cited as success stories in the fight against corruption long ago. For instance, in Hongkang, the anti-corruption drive commenced in 1974 and still the corruption. In order to curb corruption in a relatively shorter period of time, therefore, designing effective anti-corruption strategies is indispensable.
Accordingly, this study will have the following significance;
Serving as a source of reference for others who would like to know more about corruption and interested in undertaking further research on corruption and anti- corruption;
Serving as important starting point for policy makers to understand where corruption exists, how bad workplace corruption is, what are its causes and what might be done to minimize it.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
- H1: Government effectiveness are faithfully achieved.
H0: Government effectiveness are not faithfully achieved.
- H1: Effect of corruption in Nigeria has been realized to a reasonable extent.
H0: Effect of corruption in Nigeria has not been realized to a reasonable extent.
- H1: Some factors are responsible for poor effective achievement in Nigeria.
H0: There is no factor that is responsible for poor effective achievement in Nigeria.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The topic for this research work is “ effect of corruption of Nigeria public service” a case study of Ebonyi State Civil service. Using Ebonyi State civil service as a case study is to limit the scope of studied. Like the researcher stated earlier, that whatever is studied in Ebonyi State Civil service represents the entire Nigeria public service.
All questionnaires, interviews, observations and research is carried out or derive from Ebonyi State civil service alone.
Geographical location –Ebonyi State Nigeria.
Issue discussed-Effect of corruption.
Subject studied –civil servant in Ebonyi State.
Sector of the economy-public sector
Time frame 2007-2013.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There were excessive delays involved in getting materials and opinions from the staff of Ebonyi State. Hence, most of the officials that should have provided useful information are usually absent. There was an exhibition of non-challant and uncooperative attitude in providing data relevant to the study. Infact, due to the high rate of secrecy in the civil service most of them refuses to give out information about whatever concerns the system.
Moreover, there wad dearth of finance for this research, especially or due to harsh economic realities of this country and this made it difficult if not impossible for me/ the researcher to transfer himself to and fro everyday to universities, Ebonyi State civil service public service offices and libraries for research purpose.
Furthermore, the time of the research was limited to one session-consequently, the researcher found it cumbersome to painstakingly handle the research and carry on his academic activities concurrently. This is because, there were lots of assignments and term paper to be handled.
1.8 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Based on the research work, the researcher thinks it would be better to make use of the system theory. The system theory propounded by hudulig von Beth handoff in (Akpala 1990) best explains the problem effect of corruption in the Nigeria Public Service, Ebonyi State Civil Service. The system theory tries to explain that, the input when processed determines the output. In order words what the public or civil service gives to the society, the society will accept and good measure pressed down, shaking together and running over will retire it back to them. Thus when leaders or those who lead, do not lead well or show good example to their followers (the masses) the follower will definitely follow the same track and even do worse.
The input when process determines output (feed back) with the civil service injects into the society, the society returns back to them. The civil service as tated by Udenta is responsible for the carrying out the day to day activities of the government. In order words, it is the circulatory system of the political system, the totality of civil bureaucracy set up by the modern government to administer, to execute their policy and programems. In furtherance (Chukwu 2007) stated that the civil service is an organized institution that is responsible for carrying out the day to day activities of government without the civil service. There is no government. By this we ask, what do the civil service model? Well, since they are the societies backbone, if they model is corrupt. The entire society will follow suite, when the mode discipline, the society will follow as well.
This systems theory from the researchers view is believed to with corruption in the civil service. How it reflects back to the society at large. This is a system, it circulates, or revalves, whatever they push out will return back to them directly or indirectly.