PROJECT TOPIC- WOMEN AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF IGBO-EZE NORTH L.G.A IN ENUGU STATE (1999-2010)
This research project investigated on women and political participation in Igbo-Eze North. The important of women’s participation in politics, Barriers hindering women from politics, the role of adult education towards women and political participation in politics in Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area of Enugu state (1999-2010) five research questions guided the study. The design of the study was descriptive survey. Data was collected by means of questionnaire; analysis of data was done using mean statistics and mean scores. The result showed that women have negative attitude towards politics.
1.1 Background to the Study
Man is a social animal; he lives in a society and finds fulfillment in the company of his fellows. Man’s social life needs a structure to organize and regulate the complex relationship between him and his follows. According to Ngwoke, (2001) politics is the science of statement craft, the regulation of the life of citizens in a state, it is a social science. According to Remi Anifowose (1992) women constitutes half of the world’s population and have contributed significantly to the well-being of the human race.
In Nigeria for instance, women have always played five key roles; mother, producer, home manager, community organizer and social, cultural and political activists. Despite their large number and crucial functions, the division of roles between the male and female sexes as prescribed by most cultures, assign the subordinate position to women. As a consequence, women have long suffered various forms of discrimination, inequality, exclusion and violence.
All over the world women share a common feature; they are marginalized in the sphere of public life, although their participations and representation of political positions continues to be minimal. Women as a matter of fact are not reaping their share of benefit from the profound political, economic and social changes, transforming the world and their under representation in decision making levels in almost every country including Nigeria remained a major obstacles towards achieving full fledge democratic government and development.
It is regrettable that in politics in spite of their numerical superiority, women have woefully failed to exploit and harness their obvious and compelling advantage in politics. At creation God made man in his own image and they were equally endowed and changed to rule and have dominion over their environment (genesis 1: 27,28). Apostle Paul, writing to the body of Christ called the males and the females sons of God.
Using the apostles own worlds he said, “There is no difference between Jews and gentiles, between slaves and free people, between men and women, they are all one in union with Christ Jesus” (Galatains 3:38). As whitehead 1991:49 argued “the exclusion of women in development policy is a major political marginalization and equally a major source of failure or lack of satisfactory result in development efforts”
The issue of women political marginalization is a social problem, those social conditions identified by scientific inquiry and values as detrimental to the well being of human societies: women political participation links the norms and values of a democratic government. Hence, linkage between a democratic government and women political emancipation in the world is a historical one.
As the tenets of democracy have been accepted, it should be extended to all groups and All ramifications or facts of political life. The need for women greater political participation in decision making position is legitimated by basic democratic principle of equality and fundamental human rights. Upon the multiplicity of women organization, women have remained their own worst enemy.
When it comes to organizing themselves, not knowing that it is national that when people come together a different point of views, in a vast varies of views and problems would be expected. It beats one’s imagination that women can hardly agree on and point inmost of their gathering. It is embracing that irrespective of the obvious fact of improved education, better economics condition disentanglement, women tend not to improve in attitude towards politics.
It is known that cultural imitation and primitive norms, women with hands over head have continued to be moan their political plight. Nigeria women are not less endowed. We have every reason to believe that our women possess the same potentialities that women have in developed countries. Today, there have been a full fledged extension of the suffrage to women get the structural in capacity, historically rooted as it is very much in existence.
Politics is still seen as the exclusive, preserve of the men folk and only a few women are to be subscribing to these sectors. Hence the relegation of women in the process to the role of just voting for male candidates in implicating prostrated by women themselves owing principally to the rather supper situation beliefs that men have been ordained by providing to enjoy primacy in politics.
Omoregil (2002) stressed that the reality is on the women themselves that they are mostly the cause to their predicament. They acquire either or on education with the hope that the best comes when one is lucky to marry a wealthy man, they fill their thought with inferiority complex. Women of Igbo-Eze north have been subjugated into psychological situations where they perceive themselves as non powerful and even non human.
But what happened in the past had proved that exclusion of women from politics is not only costly to the women as victims but also to the nation. As Mahatma Gandhi. Argued “man and women is a peerless pair being supplementary to one another each help the other so that without the one the existence of the other cannot be conceived and therefore it follows that anything that affects the status of either of them will involve the equal ruin of them both”.
It is within the foregoing consideration that this research on women participation in Igbo-Eze north politics is predicated upon. It is an attempt to study women’s political participation for an enduring democracy and the survival of this republic and also examination of the extent to which the present democratic government can survive through integration of women. This is a modest attempt and how women’s political subjugation and marginalization can be solved.
This work is therefore, another effort toward pressing for equality in politics not only in this democratic government but other one’s that will follow. Since the bedrock of democracy is built on proportional representation of all groups and interests. One issue Enugu state and lgbo-Eze North must being to address very seriously if democracy, political stability and development can take root firmly, is the removal of women from the quagmire of near perpetual subordinate position in almost all fields of human endeavor especially politics and governance, Grappling with the issue head on has become, lately insistent because the rank and file of the agitators for more space for women in the political landscape continue to swell by the day.
PROJECT TOPIC- WOMEN AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF IGBO-EZE NORTH L.G.A IN ENUGU STATE (1999-2010)
1.2 Statement of Research Problems.
Research problem is all about an academic “perplexing question” posed for solution; it is an intellectual task and not a physical one. This phenomenon of women political marginalization is an imperative one, therefore it will not only focus in dept analysis of political, social economical and cultural rule of prejudices against women but the reverberations of universal democratic values on the whole.
Politics is popular known as a game of member yet the contemporary Nigeria political system is male dominant. This could be as a result of women behaviors towards politics and towards their fellow women who want to contest for political post. Moreover, an average Nigerian woman believes that a women’s job should not go beyond domestic things, child birth and perhaps employment in a job. The problem of this study put in a question for is, what is the behavior of women. And also why women remained in a state of political paralysis in Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area towards politics.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main aim of this study is to investigate the behavior of women towards politics, specifically the study sought to:
i Identifies extent of women participation in politics.
ii To find out the interest of the women in politics in Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area.
iii Assess the needs for women that participation in politics.
iv Determines the barriers that hinder women participation in politics.
v Find out how to rectify their poor behavior toward politics.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study is designed to provide useful information on women and political participation in Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area in Enugu state. It will seek in correcting various misconception and notion about women and politics. The result of the study will helps Enugu state women to understand that political participation is a civil obligation which every woman should respond to. The recommendation made at end will be of much help in the enhancement of women participation in Enugu state politics.
A hypothesis is a tentative statement which is subject to confirmation or rejection, when exposed or subjected to empirical verification. Therefore this research work will seek to proven the following hypothetical statements:- H0 culture hinders women from political participation in Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area in Enugu state. H1 cultures do not hinder women from political participation in Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area in Enugu state. H0 there is gender equality in women and political participation in Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area in Enugu state
1.6 Scope of Study
The study is delimited to Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area. The content scope in includes:- a. Extent of Igbo-Eze women participation in politics. b. Interest of Igbo-Eze women in politics c. Need for women participation in politics. d. Problems of women in politics. e. Ways to rectified women’s problems in politics.
1.7 Limitations of Study
This study met with some predicaments which constituted much set back to its operation. They are as follows:- 1. The time available for this research work was so in sufficient that the jacks of the work which we would have deduced in were skipped. 2. It was not possible to get all the pieces of information and material for the study 3. Lack of finance militate the seriously against the smooth running of this research work which hindered the facilitation as it should be. I am suggesting that the above limitation be noted and addressed by future researchers.
1.8 Theoretical Framework
In the theoretical framework of this research, women suffrage theory serves the best theory to analysis this work. Women suffrage is the right of women to share on equal terms with men in political privileges afforded by representative Government and more particularly to participate in political matters of the state Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area in Enugu state. Simone D Beavior and Beljinlf propounded these theories in the year (1980) and also argued that whatever man can do, women can do it even better.
They saw the necessity of women in politics since women previously been taken as an object to be seen and not to be heard. There is one proverbs which said that if one trains a man; he only succeeded in training a single but if one trains a women, one have succeed in training a nation, women participation in Igbo-Eze North Local government area will make a difference in this body political of the area.
This theory of women suffrage provides a frame work for encouraging women participation in politics in Nigeria and in Igbo-Eze North in Enugu state particular. This theory will put to an end all the cultural cum religious inhibitions of women’s political participation in Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area in Enugu State.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
In this section, definition of terms will be undertaken for proper understanding.
Gender: The term Gender is drives from the latin noun, genus, which means “kind” or group until recently the term was used mainly as a grammatical concept to classify words into masculine, feminine and neuter. In more specific term gender refers to the social attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female and the relationships between women and men and girls and boys.
Equality: Most contemporary societies are male dominated in varying degrees, they harbor beliefs mores and practices which objectives by permit of promote the economic exploitation of women and their political marginalization equality in it’s wide sense, as in the definition of equal opportunities in the land act 1998, encompasses gender, race, disability, sexual orientation and also individuals and groups facing dissemination on the grounds of age, language or social origin, or of other personal attributes, including beliefs or opinions such as religious belief of political opinion.
Woman: Is an adjective for an adult female human while the plural is women?
Prospects: A chance or the likelihood that something will happen in the near future, especially something desirable. For instance, the prospect of a women becoming the president of Nigeria. The act of taking part in an activity or event, for instance how active has been the participation of women in Igbo-Eze North politics. Is a sub-type of feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of capitalism as away to liberate women?
Politics: Like any other concept in the social science has no universally acceptable definition, it is a multifaceted phenomenon, various scholars have given their view on the meaning and definition of politics the great Greek philosopher “Aristotle” started his famous work with observation that man is by nature a political animal, he define politics as the master science. According to him it controls and coordinate Without destroying other activities. Mao stunge says it’s “war without blood shed”, while Harold lass well sees it as “who get what when and how”. On the whole politics is the reconciliation of conflicting of conflicting interest in an organized society. As it relates to the research, the inequality against women in political participation, politics is not gender bias.